Current knowledge indicates that if river landscapes are managed positively to support beneficial in-river organisms, the ecosystem service value and sustainability of rivers might be enhanced.

Key questions

1. What is the range of services delivered by upland rivers, and which are biologically mediated?
2. What are the links between biodiversity from genes to food webs and service delivery?
3. How does river biodiversity affect the rate or resilience of ecosystem service delivery through time?
4. How do changes in catchment land use, management and climate affect river biodiversity?
5. How should river biodiversity be managed to sustain ecosystem services?

Key needs

1. Improve understanding of the role of river biodiversity in underpinning services
2. Identify how biodiversity increases the resilience of ecosystem services under changing land use or climate
3. Assess whether there are critical levels of biodiversity to maintain ecosystem services
4. Develop tools to monitor and value ecosystem services that are related to biodiversity

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